Thursday, August 6, 2015
(This brief article repeats some things I've said elsewhere here, but in a condensed and, I hope, accessible form. It is based on part of my talk, “What Makes Waldorf, Waldorf? Separating Myths from Essentials and Making the Future Bright,” a keynote address at the annual Governance, Leadership and Management (GLaM) Conference, Steiner Education Australia (SEA), Shearwater, The Mullumbimby Steiner School, NSW, Australia. May 2, 2015.)
A Steiner school gives its graduates—high school graduates—five gifts. Primary school parents and graduates will recognize these gifts, but they will also recognize that they do not come to fruition by 7th or 8th grade.
1.) The first gift is the gift of ideas and ideals. A Steiner school does not provide beliefs or a worldview. Belief, knowledge, and worldview may be “about” spiritual matters, but are not them. The school provides a pathway or method for discovering profound ideas and ideals, should a student wish later in life to pursue them.
In fact, all we can give with regard to spiritual realities—the realm of ideas and ideals—is a path that can be followed or retraced. In geometry, I can show you how the steps of a proof lead to logical proof, but you must take that final intuitive leap yourself. If you do not “see” that these steps constitute a proof, all I can do as a teacher is retrace the path with you, perhaps using different language or different symbols in order to help you again to the brink of intuitive understanding.
2.) Second, a school addresses its students as developing human beings, beings uniquely capable of inner transformation. In nature, metamorphoses and transformations are primarily visible. We can see a plant grow from shoot to leaves to flower, each stage presenting unforeseen changes of form. No one looking at a caterpillar for the first time would guess that it will soon be a butterfly. In human life, especially after childhood, transformation and development are not so visible. For Steiner, all cats belong to the same species, but each human being is a species unto himself or herself.
3.) Third, a school introduces students to different ways of knowing and being, three in particular. (Psychologists recognize these with terms like “cognition,” “affect,” and “behavior.”) You can know cognitively, you can live in your head. You can contemplate or reflect, observe or compare, analyze or synthesize. These accord most closely with what the world outside a Steiner school means by knowing.
But you can also know with your heart. I call this aesthetic knowing, knowing in which you are awake to beauty, to an ethical understanding, and even to truth. The path to truth may be cognitive, but the recognition of truth is a feeling. Playfulness is the true expression of aesthetic knowing. One way to understand what I mean is to contrast aesthetic knowing with its opposite, “anaesthetic knowing.” Something that anaesthetizes you puts you to sleep—you cannot know anything. The aesthetic awakens you.
Last, you can know in your body and in your senses. Michael Polanyi calls this “tacit knowing,” knowing more than we can say. You can read a book about playing the piano or performing heart surgery, but I hope you would not say after you put the book down that you knew how to do these things.
4.) Fourth, a school can provide profound examples and guidelines for a healthy life with other persons. If they choose to, Waldorf school graduates know how to care for others in brotherhood and sisterhood, in solidarity. They know how to respect the equality of any man or any woman. They know where their individual freedom lies, the sort of freedom that laws and conventions cannot touch, and how to accord others their own freedom and dignity.
5.) Fifth, students receive a reverence for life and for the world; a concern for the environment, however defined. I mention this last because as a society we have probably embraced this gift more fully in the past fifty years than we have the others.
Any school, any teachers, may give these gifts. But the sad truth is that in our world today only in Steiner schools can you regularly find teachers united in common purpose to give their students as fully and consistently what I have outlined here.
Sunday, June 14, 2015
Graduation Address at Green Meadow Waldorf School, Spring Valley, NY, June 14, 2015
Mr. Madsen and I go way back—all the way to 1979. He was my physics teacher during my senior year of high school, his first year at the Garden City Waldorf School. He was a real rocket scientist, he had been in a doctoral program in astrophysics or something like that, and he knew his stuff. After a few years of “Waldorf” science, it was refreshing and wonderful to have someone who could teach us “real” science.
I then worked with Mr. Madsen at the Waldorf School of Garden City, when I returned to teach there after college. I want to thank him for some great conversations about differences among Waldorf schools that later spurred my own research and my decision to return to graduate school.
I don’t know if he remembers this, but he was part of a 10th grade trip to New Hampshire—studying geology in the White Mountains—when I nearly drowned slipping over a waterfall and into a whirlpool called “the cauldron.” I lived, but I lost my glasses and my camera, and I had to hike in wet boots for the rest of the week.
I also worked for him at Camp Glen Brook, in New Hampshire, when he was the director and I was a young husband and father. After Glen Brook, he returned to teaching, coming here to Green Meadow.
I used to be an intense, driven, arrogant, unforgiving, highly competitive person—I’m much, much mellower now—and I believe it’s a good thing that Mr. Madsen is kind, gentle, and forgiving, or I’m not sure he would have tolerated me through those early years of my school and career.
He doesn’t know this, but when I returned to work in Garden City, I had access to student files, including my own. I was able to read my own college recommendations! Mr. Madsen said some flattering things, and he also said, “Steve does not tolerate fools lightly.” So I would like to take this very public opportunity to ask him a slightly rhetorical question: “Why should I?”
It’s a great pleasure and an honor to be here, as Mr. Madsen says good-bye to possibly his last 12th grade, 36 years after he was my teacher.]
STEINER & REALITY
I met today’s graduates in March—hello, everyone!—and was able to talk with them for about 45 minutes. They struck me as a group of particularly level-headed, level gazing students. So I decided to talk to them about reality. And, of course, if we’re going to talk about reality, we have to talk about superpowers.
The rest of my talk today is really about one sentence in Rudolf Steiner’s work.
Several years ago, Joe Robertson, one of my adult students, asked, “What does Rudolf Steiner mean by ‘reality,’ anyway?” I didn’t know how to answer. No one else in the class did, either. We won’t go too far into it today, but you may know that some of Steiner’s ideas about reality can seem… strange.
A couple of years later, I came across this sentence in Steiner’s work: “Fundamentally, reality consists of beings and their relationships.” Fundamentally, reality consists of beings and their relationships. I’ve been thinking about this ever since.
What is a being? What is a relationship?
Among other things, they are the source of your superpowers.
Your first superpower is invisibility. You may look like attractive, young adults of different sizes and genders and races and ethnicities, but you are actually invisible. All your objective characteristics are extraneous to your value to the world. And to your being, your existence. You may use these characteristics as tools to help you work in the world—I hope you will. Simply put, objects are visible, but beings are invisible, immaterial. And you are beings, not objects.
Think about it this way: Each day you eat about 3 pounds of food, drink about 6 pounds of water, and inhale about 1 pound of oxygen. 10 pounds of matter, almost 4000 pounds a year. In the course of your life, you will consume and transform about 250,000 pounds of food, water, and oxygen, but with luck, you will never weigh more than you weigh today. You are not your matter.
How do we know you, then, if not by your skin color, height, gender, blood pressure, and bone density?
We know you by your deeds, by what you do in the world. Your deeds reveal not only who you are but also that you are. Your parents and your teachers have done their very best to prepare you to do great deeds in the world, and that is part of what we are here to recognize today.
So, what is a deed? (My string of questioning will stop in a moment.) To perform a deed, you must have an intention, even if it is not always entirely conscious. And your deed has an effect on the world, even if the results do not always match the intention. In performing deeds, you enter a relationship with the world, you aim—ethically, creatively, freely—to change the world.
We hope you will do this for the good of all, and not with selfish intention or injurious effect. And to those ends, we have educated you with care and love, trying ourselves to work ethically, creatively, and freely in your service.
When you leave here, exercise your power of invisibility as ethical, free, creative human beings.
What about relationships?
First, when we are in relationship, our troubling, acute sense of a split between you and me, us and them, subject and object, disappears.
Just about all teenagers feel lonely. In 10th grade, how many times did you go home and tell your mom that you had no friends, when your teachers saw you laughing with schoolmates in every class? You were developing the sense of self that can now exist as invisible being in relationship to others and the world.
You separated from the world of your childhood and your parents. You had to. But now you can reunite with the world, you can reunite the world. This is your second superpower—to heal the divisions in the world. You are healers. Where there is unrest and injustice in the world, where there is division among human beings, or division between human beings and nature, only human activity will heal it, and only in active relationship.
This healing power of relationship is the same whether the relationship exists between you and another human being or you and, say, a cloud. You lie on your back, watching the clouds. Maybe you paint them. You erase the gap between you and the clouds until the moment you say, this is really fun, at which point you step out of relationship and return to a you separate from the world.
Or when you’re with your friend—or even arguing with your enemy—you’re not aware of a you and a them. You’re participating in a relationship, which includes both of you and which exists between you, whether it is pleasant or unpleasant. If you stop fighting with your opponent to say, wow, I strongly dislike you, then, at least for a moment, you have stepped out of that relationship. You have returned to a you separate from the world.
POLARITY AS RELATIONSHIP
I’d like to go one step further today, and end with a sort of thought experiment about relationships in the form of a very short story. Like “Rashomon” or “Run, Lola, Run,” which happen to be two of my favorite movies, this story has several endings, not one.
You stand outside a burning building. A loved one is trapped inside. You are afraid. And you must overcome your fear, or you will watch your loved one perish.
You stand outside a burning building. A loved one is trapped inside. You desperately want to rush thoughtlessly, foolishly into the building. And you must resist your foolhardiness, or you and your loved one will both perish.
You stand outside a burning building. A loved one is trapped inside. You overcome your fear. You withstand the urge to rash action. You act courageously, and you save your loved one.
Your courage is not some interaction of adrenaline and electrochemical neurology. It is that capacity that arises in you when you enter a relationship with fear and foolhardiness. You are courageous, but you still feel fear. You also feel the impulse to act without thinking. You are able, however, to enter a relationship between these forces of fear and foolhardiness, and, in mediating them, to act courageously. The opposition of fear and foolhardiness, the polarity between them, the true relationship in which they exist, provides the possibility for courage to arise.
By the way, there’s a fourth version of my mini-tale: You stand outside a burning building. A loved one is trapped inside. You overcome your fear, but only a part of it. You withstand the urge to rash action, but only partly. You cannot bring yourself to act courageously. You are filled with anxiety. You panic. You run away or you run in circles. Your loved one dies. In this case, you have not given in to one of the poles, nor have you successfully mediated the tension between them. You have simply allowed them to swirl about inside you, to devastating effect.
In this story of you trying to save a loved one from a burning building—regardless of the ending—the relationship in question is within you, not between you and the world or you and another person. Yes, the burning building is in the world. Yes, the person with whom you have a loving relationship is in the building. But the fear and the foolishness and the panic and your courage are all in you.
Consider also a fifth possible ending to my story, possibly the most tragic: You stand outside a burning building. A loved one is trapped inside. You see fear to one side. You see foolishness on the other side. You glimpse courage, but as something outside your capacity to muster. You turn and walk away. Or you collapse on the ground, unconscious. At the moment you most needed to act, you are unable to summon your humanity.
You see, when the TV news crews show up, they will sympathize with your fear or even panic. They will call your foolishness courage. They will understand your collapse or your rational decision to walk away rather than risk your life.
From the outside, all the outcomes are understandable, all the outcomes are justifiable. No one will blame you in any case. But you will know what might have been, what you could have done. That’s the challenge and the burden and the beauty of being a human being. That’s what calls us to exercise our superpowers, whether they’re the ones I’m talking about today or a host of others.
Because of your education particularly at a Waldorf school, you are well suited to exercising the healing superpower that allows you to overcome a potentially devastating, destructive tension between fear and foolishness. And to enter true relationships and overcome many, many other apparent tensions.
Who can do this? Someone who, in their invisible being, has an ethical, free, and creative core. Ethics call you to action. Freedom allows you to choose to engage. And creativity allows you to solve seemingly intractable problems.
One of the greatest values of seeing the world as a place in which relationships mediate polarities, is that this bridges inner and outer, subjective and objective, even the literary and the scientific. I have three examples to spur your thinking:
In William Butler Yeats’ poem, “The Second Coming,” we hear, “The best lack all conviction while the worst are full of passionate intensity.” “Lacking all conviction” is giving in to meaninglessness and the denial of ego; “passionate intensity” describes the temptation of egocentricity. The tension or relationship or polarity between too much ego and not enough ego is resolved only in your healthy self. Ethically, creatively, freely.
In his Theory of Colors, Goethe showed that color arises as the relationship or interpenetration of light and dark. I hope you all know this, or at least vaguely remember it: Darkness seen through a light-filled medium, atmosphere or prism, appears as cyan, blue, or violet. Light seen through a dense medium, atmosphere or prism, appears as red, orange, or yellow.
By the way, Goethe’s work on color is obviously, incontrovertibly true within its conceptual framework to anyone who has studied it and understood or apprehended it, and yet it’s still controversial—seen as a matter of “belief” by those who know “about” it but do not know it. (Very briefly: It’s not necessary to choose Goethe or Newton. Both are correct within their own frameworks. Goethe’s work centers on human perception of color. Newton’s work, as he himself recognized, is not about color at all, but about what we now call electromagnetic radiation. And, either way, that Pink Floyd t-shirt image of light passing through a prism is a false and inaccurate representation.)
And a final example, not from literature or science, but just from common experience, and particularly relevant to today’s events:
The present exists only in the relationship between the future and the past. This sounds trite, so let me explain. The present gains direction and momentum from the past and creative energy from the future.
The future holds all possibilities, but without a past, with nothing to build on, no rudder, no direction, none of them can be brought into being. Without a past, there is no real future, only a meaningless present. We could call this imagination without memory.
The past holds only what has been done, what has been the case. A past alone dwells hopelessly in memory, contains no ideals, nothing to lead us forward. Without a future, there is simply inertia, more of the same, devoid of novelty or agency or meaningful change. We could call this memory without imagination.
Memory and imagination, past and future, are poles that can bring the present into being. But only human activity can make the present into something meaningful—free, ethical, creative human activity. Today, of all days, you stand at an end of many memories and the beginning of many images of the future.
BACK TO REALITY
The point, clearly, is not simply to identify polar relationships, to collect them like dead butterflies and show them to our friends, even at an important occasion like this. It is to begin to see that this is how our world is constructed—to begin to see, first, how ALL beings exist in relationship. Second, that ALL relationships are polar. And, third, that only the activity of (invisible) human beings can bring meaning to relationships.
One image that shows this is a true image of threefoldness, or triunity. It is the lemniscate, the symbol of infinity: The two lobes represent the poles that recursively enter a relationship with each other. The crossing in the center represents the point of possibility, the point at which courage, or a healthy ego, or all the colors of the world, or human consciousness in its billions of hues, or a new love, or a child, or a discovery, or an artistic creation, or any of the manifold, untold phenomena of our world, within us, outside of us, and between us, may arise.
To end, I’ve written a verse for you:
Fundamentally, reality consists of being and relationship.
Carefully attend to invisible being.
Steadfastly seek relationship
With the human beings with whom you share this life,
With the world in which we all live and work,
And within your own active and invisible being.
Do this ethically,
Do this creatively,
And do this freely.
Congratulations, Class of 2015, and blessings on you on this important day.
Thank you very much for your kind attention.
Monday, May 11, 2015
Statisticians talk about two kinds of errors, which they call, imaginatively, Type I and Type II.
Type I errors are those in which we perceive or recognize a pattern or effect that actually doesn’t exist, a so-called “false positive.” Our data mislead us, giving evidence of a phenomenon that, with further research, we will debunk. My 9-year-old son found that the Yankees won when he sat on the floor and lost when he sat on the sofa. Further research, unfortunately, failed to produce data in support of this hypothesis. Type I errors, we could say, are errors of gullibility.
Type II errors are those in which we fail to recognize or discover a pattern or truth that actually exists, a so-called “false negative.” Our data are incomplete or insufficient, our tools too coarse, our methods too crude. The pattern is there to be discovered, but we can’t (yet) see it. We may suspect that cigarettes increase the incidence of certain cancers, but we have yet to generate the research that demonstrates this, for example. Well, a while ago. Type II errors, we could say, are errors of skepticism.
Researchers are generally more skeptical, comfortable living safely with Type II errors, knowing that there are things out there that we just don’t know. And Type I errors make them uncomfortable, suggesting superstition and conspiracy theories. (Statisticians know that these two errors are fundamentally the same—alter the hypothesis you are testing, and the same research will produce a different possibility for error. I’m not talking here about statisticians, however, but about interpretations of their work.)
This preference in favor of Type II errors and against Type I errors isn’t a necessary one, nor has it always held sway. Medieval minds were clearly happier with Type I errors than we are—dragons in China? A city of gold in central America? Angels on pinheads? Sure. And Medievals would likely have found a modern, skeptical, Type II-error-preferring person dry and boring, knowing with certainty but knowing little. Just as gullible children live happily with Type I errors and often find grown-ups… dry and boring.
Recognizing these errors, and our preferences for one or the other, can open us to some further considerations.
1.) There are certainly many things we don’t know, and, for anyone interested in open-minded research, either preference—for Type I errors or for Type II errors—can eventually lead to greater statistically-based truth. The Middle Ages led to modern times. Skeptics are gradually convinced; gulls are gradually enlightened.
2.) If we indulge a view that all truths are found only in statistics, however, then truths that are not found in statistics—that are found in direct experience, for example—may elude us altogether. Or be revealed in an instant.
3.) The middle ground—the truths unrecognizable by Type II thinking and within Type I thinking but not distinguishable from falsity—is likely larger than we imagine. An example may include some aspects of astrology. I’m not interested in it, particularly, and, as a careful Type II guy, I don’t find or really attempt to find evidence of any truth in it. But I’m skeptical of other Type IIs who too quickly dismiss it. I’m unwilling completely to dismiss those ancients who found value in it. For what it’s worth—which is clearly more than obvious superstitions like, “step on a crack, break your mother’s back” (I’m happy not to have access to the parallel universe of spine-injured moms)—astrology held sway in various ways for millennia and in many brilliant minds. It may well be that our data are incomplete, our methods crude, our assumptions wrong.
4.) Researchers’ preference for living with Type II errors is based on the assumption of randomness (and, with it, the value of large sample sizes). And, as I’ve written elsewhere (click here), although we may “feel” this assumption to be correct, it is, in the end, an assumption. If that assumption is incorrect—if randomness is not as prevalent or as pervasive as we believe—then our preference for Type II errors would have to subside, and our tolerance for Type I errors would have to rise.
What would it be like to live in a world in which Type I and Type II errors were tolerated equally? If we attempted to balance healthy skepticism with healthy open-mindedness? We might know less for certain, and we might be more open-minded regarding the experience of others.
(These ruminations derive from a conversation with Andrew Hill, Collegiate Chair, Glenaeon Rudolf Steiner School, NSW, Australia, on the steps of the Sydney Opera House.)
Friday, May 8, 2015
Elementary school teachers are charged with guarding students from a world that asks them to grow up too quickly.
High school teachers are charged with liberating students in a world that asks them to remain adolescent forever.
At around the age of 13 or 14 or 15, children become young adults, and the world that asked them to grow up too quickly acts like a judo master and overthrows expectations and pressures. Now our young adults are never to grow anymore. This new world wants them to remain at that idealistic, malleable stage in which judgment, discernment, and executive function are not developed. We are to be consumers and political pawns, but not mature, thoughtful, free, creative adults. (I have written about this in a bit more detail here.)
Despite superficial similarities—delivery of curriculum, and so on—primary school teachers and high school teachers, then, have very different jobs. Elementary school provides, among other things, protection and guardianship. High school provides, among other things, guidance and liberation. These tasks are so different that they can become a source of friction and criticism among colleagues in a school.
One mundane example regards student dress. Elementary school teachers often set policies against wearing clothes with logos and images, keeping classrooms free of distracting pop and commercial imagery. These rules are relaxed in high school as students, now young adults, are capable of seeing past such superficialities in the classroom, are not distracted by them.
On a deeper level, elementary school teachers can count on their students to behave, often, because of their respect for a teacher’s authority. High school teachers have to earn the respect of their students, and commands for good behavior are simply often no longer effective.
In good times, younger students look up to the astonishing achievements of older students—their artwork, their science projects, their athletic feats—and the school community honors the blossoming of its older students. But I’m talking about the day-to-day friction that can occur among colleagues because of the profound change from childhood to adolescence and the demands it places on teachers.
In Waldorf or Steiner schools, primary school teachers often stay with their classes right through to this transition point. If we are not careful, teachers’ appropriately guarding, nurturing influence carries on too long, and the students begin to chafe under this increasingly inappropriate guardianship. And, when primary school teachers look up to the high school grades and observe the messy process by which teenagers gradually mature and learn to act freely and responsibly, they can become critical of high school teachers who appear not to be doing their job in controlling high school student behavior.
And high school teachers sometimes gaze down from their perches and develop disdain for the work of their colleagues in primary school, who may appear to lack expertise and sophistication because they are guarding their students beautifully.
If we understand the challenges of the world we have created and in which we live, a world that sends the message, “stay forever young”—but not too young—and the different challenges that this presents for primary school teachers and high school teachers, we can understand each other as colleagues. We can develop sympathy for colleagues whose jobs appear outwardly similar but that are in a fundamental way the inverse of each other—one necessarily guarding, the other necessarily liberating.
Friday, April 17, 2015
We are told to live in the moment.
But can we?
The future, which does not yet exist and has never existed, unfurls inexorably and then, in literally no time at all, is past, gone. From the future, the realm of potentiality and possibility, we move instantly to the past, the realm of the unalterable.
How can we understand the present?
It does not exist in itself. It is the seam, the infinitesimally fine imaginary line between the past and the future. The present gains direction and momentum from the past and creative energy from the future.
Imagine a future with no past.
Amnesiacs experience something like this, although (as far as I know), no one is completely amnesiac. The future may hold creative possibilities, but with nothing to build on, no rudder, no direction, none of them can really be brought into being.
Without a past, there is no real future, only an illimitable, meaningless present. We could call this imagination without memory.
Imagine a past with no future.
I don’t know that we have a name for this as a medical condition, although maybe it deserves one. Dwelling hopelessly in memory, no image of the future, no ideals, nothing to lead us forward. The only track is the one we’re on.
Without a future, there is simply inertia, more of the same, devoid of novelty or agency or meaningful change. We could picture it as memory without imagination.
(Memory without imagination? Isn’t that an apt description of a computer? And the world we’re building with our digital devices? Devices with astonishing amounts of “memory,” and programmed with algorithms that include every possible “future” without novelty. The creators and programmers have the thrill of invention and creation, but what they create excludes these experiences from us users, or provides only their illusion.)
Both lopsided worlds, the past-without-future and the future-without-past, are imaginary only. They are poles between which the present comes into being. Future and past interpenetrate to produce the present.
And a meaningful present exists only in the tension, mediated by human beings, between the past and the future.
Sunday, April 12, 2015
Note: I’m posting this largely unfinished—a collection of paragraphs in search of resolution—because I’m interested to know what anyone who stumbles across this thinks. Post comments. Let me know. I feel like I’m just scratching the surface of the topic…
You stand outside a burning building. A loved one is trapped inside. You are afraid. And if you cannot overcome your fear, you will watch your loved one perish.
You stand outside a burning building. A loved one is trapped inside. You must resist the urge to rush thoughtlessly, foolishly into the building. If you cannot resist your foolhardiness, you and your loved one will both perish.
You stand outside a burning building. A loved one is trapped inside. If you can act courageously, overcoming fear and withstanding the urge to rash action, you may save your loved one.
In human experience, then, courage is not some interaction of adrenaline and electrochemical neurology. It is that capacity that can arise when we allow fear and foolhardiness to “interpenetrate” within us. A courageous person experiences fear, and she also feels the impulse to act without thinking. She is able, however, to maintain a dynamic tension between these forces of fear and foolhardiness, and, in mediating them, to act courageously. The opposition of fear and foolhardiness, the polarity between them, provides the possibility for courage to arise.
Apologies for the melodramatic opening. But part of the challenge of writing about polarities is that the writing can come off as dry and logical, when the phenomena of polar interactions are so alive, multifaceted, and interesting. It’s the difference between describing an optical demonstration in which a prism is interposed between a beam of light and a projector screen and the experience of seeing the rainbow of colors that results.
Some thinkers, from Heraclitus and Plato through Giordano Bruno, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Rudolf Steiner, and Owen Barfield, to William Butler Yeats and James Joyce, and beyond, have found value in demonstrating how capacities, qualities, and values (these are, we could say, immaterial or spiritual realities—realities that span a huge range, including courage, emotions in general, color, and art) arise through the interaction of apparent opposites, polarities.
What is a polarity? It is an opposition or tension between two qualities or capacities that, in their “interpenetration" (Coleridge, Barfield) or “intensification" (Goethe) or “held balance" (Steiner), give rise to a third quality or capacity. It is “a dynamic and generative interpenetration of opposites.” [“Dialectic And The ‘Two Forces Of One Power:’ Reading Coleridge, Polanyi, And Bakhtin In A New Key,” Elaine D. Hocks, p. 1.]
The interpenetration or intensification is dynamic, moving, we could even say “alive,” although not in a strictly biological sense (what is biological life? Have we given up on that question?). So the new creation of the interaction or mediated tension between the poles is never static or single. The interaction of light and darkness, in the color theory brilliantly elaborated by Goethe, produces color. All color, from the dullest gray-brown to the most luminous, brilliant gold, with all hues and shades in between.
Similarly, Steiner’s description of emotions arising from movement between attraction (sympathy) and repulsion (antipathy) shows how all emotions (we could say “true” emotions; more on “false” emotions below), from the gentlest glimmer of new love to the strongest expression of courage, arise from polar phenomena.
The emotion we call courage, the capacity for appropriate action in the face of fear and the tug of foolhardiness, fits within Steiner’s more general polarity in which emotions arise out of attraction and repulsion (sympathy and antipathy). Fear repels us; we must face a fear to overcome it, and resist its repulsive force. Hence, perhaps, the allure of ghost stories and horror movies. And foolhardiness draws us toward rash action.
This gives some evidence of what we might call the “holographic nature” of polarities—one nested inside another. I leave it to you to decide whether or not all polarities are in the end nested in one grand one.
Similarly, the pole in one polarity may become the capacity developed by another. Thinking and perceiving form a powerful polarity from which consciousness arises, as Steiner and Barfield demonstrate. But thinking itself is the result of a polarity between the “universalizing” and the “particularizing” movements of our minds, according to Barfield.
This gives evidence of the “net-like” web of meaning that polarities inhabit. A polarity reveals or creates a quality or truth, but, to fully comprehend its ends, we must move to another polarity. This sounds like a call to relativism and a hall of mirrors, each point of meaning leading to another, not more meaningful or revealing than the last. It’s difficult to move swiftly past this point, but suffice it to say that just because we may move from pole to pole does not mean that each polarity is equal in meaning or import.
One strange aspect of polar existence is that the central phenomenon—color, let’s say, or emotions—can be experienced, used, and studied, often fruitfully, without understanding the polarity that gives rise to the phenomenon. But, we could say, real understanding, the beginning of meaning, comes only with recognition of and experience of the polarity that gives rise to the phenomenon under investigation.
To think in polarities—to recognize their existence, their power, and, particularly, to live in the moving, multi-dimensional creations of their resolution or in the balance of tension that they produce—is to think in a living way. This may not be the only thing that Steiner meant by “living thinking,” but it is one.
It’s entirely possible, by the way, to read my description of polarities, or someone else’s—Barfield’s, Coleridge’s—, to “understand” polarities in some academic or intellectual way, to be able to explain them to someone else, but not to be able creatively or imaginatively to enter their existence. It takes human activity, an act of imagination, to enter the activity of polar phenomena. I find that my ability to contend with them flickers over time—sometimes I approach more closely; other times, I meet a wall of incomprehension. Do two phenomena that appear in opposition present a polarity? Only work over time—assisted by the research of others—will tell.
“The concept of polarity … is not really a logical concept at all, but one which requires an act of imagination to grasp it. … Unlike the logical principles of identity and contradiction, it is not only a form of thought, but also the form of life. It could perhaps be called the principle of seminal identity. It is also the formal principle which underlies meaning itself and the expansion of meaning.” [Owen Barfield, Speaker’s Meaning (Middletown: Wesleyan Univ. Press, 1967), pp. 38-39.]
In this sense, polarities are akin in some ways to proofs in formal geometry. A student of geometry can be led through the steps leading to a proof, but the “QED,” the experience that these steps constitute a proof, arises only in the imaginative perception of the student. As a teacher, I can state and restate terms and relationships, trying to make clear that their relationship constitutes a proof, but only the student can generate the insight to leap over the intuitive gap presented by the final step of the proof and “see” the truth of the proof.
Similarly, an apparent opposition only becomes a generative polarity through an intuitive act of insight.
Further, a student can learn to repeat the words of a proof, uncomprehendingly, just as someone can repeat the words of, say, Goethe’s demonstration of the polarity between light and darkness that gives rise to color, or Steiner’s assertion that emotions arise from the interaction of antipathy and sympathy, without living in or comprehending the reality of this relationship. (Barfield calls this “the intellectual soul masquerading as the consciousness soul.”)
And, once this relationship has been experienced, rather than simply reiterated, its truth is unshakably present, just as is the truth of a proof in geometry, once “seen.” It may be re-experienced, almost at will, but it cannot be easily forgotten. To perceive a polarity changes the person who perceives it.
It’s also clear that what we may describe in polarities is not necessarily or not always what we mean when we describe something as “dialectical.” Dialectics, in simplest form, is the famous conflict between thesis (statement), antithesis (counter-statement), and their resolution in synthesis (which becomes the new thesis). This wheel of oppositions may describe what occurs in the world (ask Karl Marx)—slavery (thesis) and anti-slavery (antithesis) clash during the U.S. Civil War, and the resulting antithesis includes the end of slavery but the continuation of racism and oppression (synthesis). The new creation here is not the result of “interpenetration,” “balance,” or mediated, creative tension, but simply of strife. Dialectics may be powerful—in argument and in Marx’s dialectical materialism—but it is a wheel that churns what already exists, not a creative process that gives rise to something new.
Coleridge used the language of dialectics to describe polarity, but added a critical condition [my italics]:
“Every power in nature and in spirit must evolve an opposite as the sole means and condition of its manifestation: and all opposition is a tendency to re-union. This is the universal law of polarity or essential dualism, first promulgated by Heraclitus… The principle may be thus expressed. The identity of thesis and antithesis is the substance of all being; their opposition the condition of all existence or being manifested: and every thing or phenomenon is the exponent of a synthesis as long as the opposite energies are retained in that synthesis.” [(Coleridge, The Friend I, 94. Quoted in “Dialectic And The ‘Two Forces Of One Power:’ Reading Coleridge, Polanyi, And Bakhtin In A New Key,” Elaine D. Hocks.]
In every polarity, the possibility exists that the poles will simply be allowed to meet and mix, unmediated, un-intensified, without interpenetrating. This “unmediated” mixture of poles does not produce any new third quality or value. Light and dark can simply swirl together to make shades of gray. Fear and foolhardiness can simply mix to produce anxiety or even panic. The simple mixture of thinking and will produces “false” or “dead” emotions—I think of C.S. Lewis’s Men Without Chests. The mixture of thinking and perceiving results in conventional consciousness, what Barfield calls, pejoratively, “common sense,” which includes the illusion of thinking accompanied by the illusion of perceiving. And beauty and meaning can mix to produce propaganda or advertising, a hollow shell or the illusion of art.
In each polarity, one pole tends to be more “active” and one more “passive” or “receptive.” One accords more with cognition, the other with will or action.
The circumstance of a polarity offers three possibilities for error, then. 1.) A failure to allow the ends of the polarity to interpenetrate, producing only the illusion, the gray, the base mixture, the apathetic, the conventional appearance of resolution. 2.) Yielding to the temptation of one pole--fiery egocentricity, warmth, beauty, perception, sympathy, foolishness, and light. And 3.) Yielding to the temptation of the other pole—despair, meaninglessness, cold abstraction and intellect, antipathy, and darkness.
And the human being who stands between these, allowing them to interpenetrate in thinking and perceiving, must rouse herself to (inner) activity to resolve the tension between them, to allow them to interpenetrate.
Polarities are contextual and situational, and all three “parts” of them seem to arise simultaneously. For instance, antipathy does not exist until its opposite, sympathy, is also present, and both spring into being with the feeling between them. We may imagine light and darkness sitting around, waiting (to be separated one from the other), and then color arising sometime later through their interaction. But, of course, we see color first and only in imagination perceive the generative poles of light and darkness. In schematizing a polarity, we may imagine the poles existing “first” and determining the creative intensification arising “later,” but, in reality, all three spring into being at the same time. We could say that someone who too literally sketches polarities in an abstract way simply doesn’t quite understand what he is talking about—or understands it superficially without actually living it.
Some values or qualities are not immediately obvious as poles, but resolve into a polarity when properly apprehended. Goethe’s work on color is obviously, uncontrovertibly true within its conceptual framework to anyone who has studied it and understood or apprehended it, and yet it’s still controversial—seen as a matter of “belief” by those who know “about” it but do not know it. (Very briefly: It’s not necessary to choose Goethe or Newton. Both are correct within their own frameworks. Goethe’s work centers on human perception of color. Newton’s work, as he himself recognized, is not about color at all, but about what we now call electromagnetic radiation. And, either way, that Pink Floyd t-shirt image of light passing through a prism is an inaccurate representation.)
In the growth or development of a human, we may move from one to the other—will in youth, thinking in old age, for example. In human history, too, we may move from a more perceptive consciousness to a more cognitive consciousness. It’s more complicated than this, but I’m trying to keep this brief. In general, polarities present not a static creation, but one that moves. And this movement may have a meaningful direction in a human life or in the life of the world.
Not every pair of apparent opposites is necessarily a polarity. Good and evil, for example, don’t “interpenetrate” to produce a third quality or value. To paraphrase C.S. Lewis, this is because evil is simply fallen or twisted good, derivative of good, not its opposite.
Finally, a polarity is not a duality, and consideration of polarities does not perpetuate another dualistic philosophy. In fact, polarities are simultaneously both whole (one) and “triune,” and they provide a path—possibly the only path—away from dualism and irreconcilable “two-realm” theories of truth.
I will end with some examples of polarities that I have collected over the past couple of years.
1. For Plato, in the dialogue Laches, courage is the “mean” or mediated interaction or interpenetration between fear (too much thinking that precludes action) and foolhardiness (action that is not tempered by thought). I have used this as my entry to thinking about polarities at the beginning of this article. Plato does not use the word “polarity” (as I understand it, Coleridge is the first thinker to use the word in the sense in which I am using it here). He is not didactic, and the dialogue as a whole presents in a living way what I have made a bit more cut-and-dried here.
2. In his Theory of Colors, Goethe showed that color arises as the interpenetration of light and dark. Darkness seen through a light-filled medium, atmosphere or prism, appears as cyan, blue, or violet. Light seen through a dense medium, atmosphere or prism, appears as red, orange, or yellow.
3. Plant growth and development can be seen as a living process that occurs between the poles of expansion and contraction, as Goethe demonstrated in his Metamorphosis of Plants.
4. Steiner showed how the polarity of cognition (antipathy) and will (sympathy) in a human soul gives rise to feelings or emotions. Feelings lead us to put our thoughts into action; feelings likewise lead us to think about our actions. The words sympathy and antipathy are challenging in English—sympathy seems “good,” antipathy bad—and Steiner did not mean them to have these shades of meaning. Both are necessary, and the tension between them is also necessary. We might better talk about something that attracts us and something that distances us. Each is appropriate in its proper sphere.
5. Barfield, following Steiner, shows how thinking and perceiving give rise to human consciousness. We can think about the world, and we can perceive the world. Both arise simultaneously in us, producing consciousness. There is (despite William James’s thought experiment about a “blooming, buzzing confusion” or Merleau-Ponty’s hypothesis regarding the “primacy of perception”), no pure or prime perception; no perception without thought, and vice versa. Each discovers itself in the other, in consciousness.
6. “James Joyce, in A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man, makes a distinction between what he calls ‘proper art’ and ‘improper art.’ By ‘proper art’ he means that which really belongs to art. ‘Improper art,’ by contrast, is art that’s in the service of something that is not art: for instance, art in the service of advertising. Further, referring to the attitude of the observer, Joyce says that proper art is static, and thereby induces esthetic arrest, whereas improper art is kinetic, filled with movement: meaning, it moves you to desire or to fear and loathing. Art that excites desire for the object as a tangible object he calls pornographic. Art that excites loathing or fear for the object he terms didactic, or instructive. All sociological art is didactic. Most novels since Zola’s time have been the work of didactic pornographers, who are preaching a social doctrine of some kind and fancying it up with pornographic icing. Say you are leafing through a magazine and see an advertisement for a beautiful refrigerator. There’s a girl with lovely refrigerating teeth smiling beside it, and you say, ‘I’d love to have a refrigerator like that.’ That ad is pornography. By definition, all advertising art is pornographic art.” [Joseph Campbell, quoted from Reflections on the Art of Living p. 246, 1991, D.K. Osborn, Ed.]
We can summarize this in a polarity between sensuality and dry meaning: Pornography is beauty or sensuality without meaning; pedantry is meaning without beauty or sensuality. If we think of beauty and meaning as a polarity, their interpenetration, both beautiful and meaningful, is art.
7. “Things fall apart. The center cannot hold… The best lack all conviction while the worst are full of passionate intensity.” [William Butler Yeats, “The Second Coming.”] “Lacking all conviction” is to give in to meaningless ego denial; “passionate intensity” describes the temptation of egocentricity. The polarity between too much ego and not enough ego is resolved in the healthy self.
8. Michael D’Aleo demonstrates (I won’t give away the secret of precisely how) that our apprehension of material objects in the world requires the interaction of two senses—touch and sight. We see things that are not objects—the colors at sunset, for example—and we feel things that are not objects—the wind at our back, for example. Only when our sight and touch corroborate each other do we create the concept of and perceive tangible, physical, material objects. Our visual field is built, in large measure, of the tangible, and we conceptualize the world as a unity based on the interaction of these two senses.
Friday, April 10, 2015
Long ago, life was uncertain. Famine, blight, plague, political instability, Viking raids, infant mortality. And, just, generally, infections.
But the beautiful minds of those persons living in such rancid conditions operated symbolically, trying to read through the book of nature the signs of the times. They did not objectify the world, at least not to the degree that we now do. The celestial sphere, the seasons, the sun, the progress of life—symbols for higher realities of which these things were signs. Similarly, religious images and religious conceptions were not seen as ultimate truths, but as signs through which ever higher or ever deeper mysteries could be read. There were no laws of nature, no theories of evolution or of the unconscious because their minds were not tuned to seeking objective answers to such questions.
In this world of spiritual symbols and material uncertainty, the authority of the Church rang like a bell. Dogma provided a kind of certainty on which a religious life could hang. Partly, this may be due to the uncertainty of material life, and partly, it is likely due to dogma being seen and experienced less as an assertion of ultimate or absolute truth and more as the considered and powerful expression of learned authority.
Today, material life is comparatively certain. We are unlikely to die violent deaths, to suffer famine or plague. We go to sleep at night unafraid of a Viking torch. Our children live, mostly. We have heat in our homes, a fridge in the kitchen, hot and cold running water, and lots of clothing and footwear. This sense of certainty and control extends to the world of objects—the objective world out there, the random motion of atoms and molecules we imagine beneath a microscope, the meaningless balls of gaseous fusion sparkling in the night sky. And also the imagined objective world in our heads, which we can approach, for example, through psychology and brain science. Psychology is not longer a science of the soul, it is the study of the outside of our insides, you might say—at its worst, a phrenology of the inside of our heads. We live shrink-wrapped lives in a known and knowable universe.
But we are spiritually uncertain. Our symbols, if we have them, are poetic and personal, but not taken or mistaken for reality. The unconscious, if it exists, is a vast unknown, and largely unknowable. Our culture is plural and polyglot. Most of us are agnostics, if honest, atheists and literalists if not.
In this world of material certainty and spiritual uncertainty, dogma, the assertion of truth based on authority alone, is anathema to most of us. (The worst, however, “full of passionate intensity,” object to the dogma of others, then assert their own as genuine. Fundamentalists, literalists, ideologues.) Dogma no longer provides cultural certainty and cohesion, but the foundation for profound disagreement with no hope of resolution beyond conflict.
These changes—from a symbolic or image-based consciousness in a meaningful but uncertain world to an object-consciousness in a meaningless world of material certainty—alter our perspective on dogma—from a welcome and comforting island of truth to an unwelcome and indigestible choking hazard.
One particularly powerful way to observe the change from the former consciousness to the latter is to look at the history of art during these periods—from medieval European art through the Renaissance to the movements that change with increasing rapidity since early modern times—Mannerist, Baroque, Rococo, Neoclassicism, Realism, Impressionism, Postimpressionism, Expressionism, and the explosion of styles and techniques and isms of the 20th century.
Medieval art evolves slowly in a tradition of masters, journeymen, and apprentices dating back to the end of Roman times; even the turn to naturalism at the end of the middle ages continues this approach to art as craft. Beginning with post-Renaissance art, however, art becomes increasingly personal and decreasingly representative (a gross generalization, but there it is).
To look at the strange troubling tumultuous history of art in the past 150 years or so, then, is to see an effort to break the bonds of dogma and of objectifying consciousness. Art used to move from generation to generation, apprentice copying master in respectful tradition. And then, in a matter of a few years in the late 19th century, that changed. What had been done could no longer authentically be done again. I drip paint onto a canvas on the floor, and I do not create a new tradition. I create an object and a technique that informs only what you must NOT do. Make it new. Break with the past.
If we allow freedom, if we wish to break the bonds of the dogmatic assertion of truth by authorities, no matter how learned, then, to state the utterly obvious, we have to actually allow freedom. Freedom to offend, to experiment, to play, and to ignore the past. Freedom to be rude, shallow, cold, or wild. If we look at modernism in art as a whole (and post-modernism, in this view, is just late modernism, modernism curling back on itself), art of the last 150 years, can we not see the birth pangs of freedom?
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